Learning as a mechanism

Research

Un indice per misurare la accessibilità di prossimità

The Inclusive Accessibility by Proximity Index (IAPI) measures accessibility to essential services using GIS, focusing on conditions that enhance or hinder walkability, cyclability, and social interactions at the neighbourhood level. Its implementation in Bologna allowed for mapping the quality of pedestrian and cycling routes, evaluating accessibility to neighbourhood services via active mobility, and assessing the impact of pedestrianization interventions on the quality of routes and public spaces. With its ease of calculation, transferable approach using open-source data, and the ability to update indicators and coefficients, IAPI can support the development of multi-sector policies at various scales.

Article published in Italian.

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Research

Measuring accessibility by proximity for an inclusive city

Accessibility is crucial for social inclusion, influenced by transport systems, land use, temporal availability, and individual features. It measures people’s ability to engage in social life and activities contributing to their well-being. This paper introduces the Inclusive Accessibility by Proximity Index (IAPI), designed to assess accessibility to essential services and activities for local residents. IAPI considers the physical and perceptual characteristics of urban spaces and paths, reflecting different mobility needs and habits. It guides urban planning to promote walkability, cyclability, and active mobility, aiming for a sustainable and inclusive city. Using Bologna, Italy, as a testbed, the paper details the IAPI methodology, results, and steps for scalability and context sensitivity.

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Research

Making walking irresistible: enabling level-of-service measures to achieve their potential

Despite walking’s exceptional benefits, it receives surprisingly little attention. To address this, the potential of “level of service” (LOS) measures to highlight the status of walking is investigated. A literature survey on various LOS measures reveals their distinct evolutionary paths and the lack of true commensurability across modes. A micro-simulation modelling exercise suggests pedestrians fare worse than drivers, even where walking is promoted, confirming measurement anomalies across modes. The availability of “ideal speeds” is crucial for commensurability; thus, a critical assessment of “free-flow” speeds for vehicles proposes using sprinting speeds for pedestrians to gauge performance.

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Research

How Does Pedestrian Accessibility Vary for Different People? Development of a Perceived User-Specific Accessibility Measure for Walking (Paws)

Current accessibility measures often overlook the diverse needs of different user groups, leading to a mismatch between calculated and perceived accessibility. This paper proposes a new method that accounts for individual perceptions and walkability needs, developing Perceived user-specific Accessibility measures for Walking (PAWs) for seniors, children, women, and wheelchair users. By adjusting the Geo Open Accessibility Tool (GOAT) and using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the most important walkability attributes are incorporated and weighted. Results from Munich reveal a nuanced understanding of pedestrian infrastructure, aiding urban planners in creating more inclusive, equitable environments that enhance quality of life and access to amenities.

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Guidelines

Accessibility by Proximity tool – A report on its application

This report provides an in-depth exploration of the GOAT implementation process as a planning tool in the five EX-TRA Cities: Amsterdam, Ghent, Munich, London, and Bologna. It offers a technical breakdown of the tool’s development and functionality and a comprehensive overview of the GOAT implementation journey in each city, complete with thorough analysis and resulting insights.

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Guidelines

D4AMS handbook: How and why to use and lessons learned

The main research findings into the development of the D4AMS tool are translated here into a policy guidelines document. This document contains the most relevant findings for local policymakers concerning the impact of street experiments and shared mobility solutions on mobility. It also delves deeper into the different case studies and the methodologies applied. The policy guidelines include some major quick wins and key elements to take into consideration. Additionally, it gives insights into scenario building through agent-based-modelling and how to deal with assumptions made in the model. The key takeaways of this document can be found on the ‘policy guidelines’ page on the dashboard.

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Tools

GOAT (Geo Open Accessibility Tool)

GOAT is a digital planning tool designed to enhance sustainable mobility and urban development by integrating various accessibility indicators. It utilizes a broad spectrum of data, including points of interest, buildings, population data, land use, and environmental data. Tailored for local authorities, regions, and planning offices, GOAT aims to streamline planning processes, fostering efficiency, collaboration, and data-driven decision-making. Using OpenStreetMap data, it offers isochrones, multi-isochrones, heatmaps and scenarios supporting walking, cycling, and wheelchair accessibility assessments. Moreover, its digital accessibility facilitates participatory methods, engaging stakeholders, practitioners, citizens, and academics in exploring accessibility impacts in various cases.

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Tools

D4AMS (Dashboard for Alternative Mobility Scenarios)

The Dashboard for Alternative Mobility Scenarios (D4AMS) allows policymakers and mobility experts to explore the mobility outcomes of street experiments and shared mobility options on the city level. Various scenarios are presented for four case study cities: Ghent, Bologna, Munich, and Amsterdam. These scenarios include different configurations of shared mobility options and street closure plans, allowing for comparative analysis. The dashboard website also contains more information on the methodology and outlines major policy guidelines.

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Tools

IAPI (Assessing Inclusive Accessibility by Proximity)

IAPI is a GIS-based quantitative methodology for assessing accessibility, through active mobility, to a basket of daily, essential services at the district and city levels. IAPI measures accessibility by considering how the technical performances and perceived qualities of the neighborhood’s paths and public spaces can influence active mobility for pedestrians, people with reduced mobility, and cyclists. By using open data – mainly from OSM – integrated with crowdsourced information collected via citizen direct involvement, IAPI is designed to maximize scalability, transferability, and the level of customization for context-sensitive applications.

 

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Tools

StreetECHO

StreetECHO is a comprehensive open-source toolkit designed to facilitate stakeholder engagement with communities in the transformation of urban streets, emphasising the importance of diverse citizen perspectives, experiences, needs, and values related to city streets. This toolkit comprises a suite of tools including a data collection survey and a street mapping tool for documenting individual perceptions of street transformation. It also features a dynamic data visualisation tool, allowing users to navigate and engage with aggregated data in real-time. Additionally, StreetECHO offers a detailed workshop protocol for community engagement workshops, ensuring inclusive and effective participation.

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